1.1 Background of the Study
The study is in the area of psychology analysis. Davidoff (1976: 2) explains that psychology is the science of behavior. While behavior itself is any human or animal process or activity that can be objectively observed or measured. The definition of behavior includes thoughts, feelings, dreams, and anything a person does or experiences.
On the area of psychology, psychologists have observed some phenomena such as thoughts, sensations, emotions, needs, motives, personality characteristics, and capabilities that cannot be observed or measured directly. These phenomena are called hypothetical constructs (Davidoff 1976: 2)
Psychology happens in human mind, which will give the impact on people’s activities everyday. We can learn the psychological study not only in the character of human in real life but also in such literary works, like novel, short story, poem, etc. According to William Henry as cited by Hardjana (1991: 59), psychology enters the area of literary criticism through four ways: (1) discussion about the process of literary creation, (2) psychological analysis of the author (either as a type or as a person), (3) discussion about psychological theories applicable to the analysis of the character’s behavior in literary works, (4) the influence of literary works on the readers.
Rees (1973: 20) states that literature is a writing which expresses and communicates thoughts or ideas, feeling or emotions, and attitude towards life. It means that through literature, we know other people’s feelings, thoughts, and attitude’s in the written form of language.
Kiel (1974: 9) states that fiction, as a part of literature, can be pointed as a fruitful field for exploration in the study of human personality. In psychology insight, the writers usually know many things between heaven and earth that the academic wisdom does not dream about. Great writers know how to give a unified picture of a whole personality trough minute observation of meaningful expression, a characteristic mannerism, or unconscious habit. It can be said that there is an intimate relationship between psychology and literature. Psychology helps to clarify some literary problems and literature presents insight to psychology. According to Henry L in his book entitled Psychology (1984:423), there are two classification of emotion as follows:
(1) Positive emotions (i.e. joy, love, and sexual excitement) (2) Negative emotions (i.e. anger, fear, sadness, and grief)
From the categories above, the writer will focus only on the positive emotion that is love. Love is the most complex and important thing from all human emotions (Tressider, 1997: 1). Love is a prominence and virtue based on the human life. The supreme value of human virtue is out poured from their regard to the life itself. In this case, the reality of a certain person or individual development always has direct relation to the attention and relation of conscious inter-subject. It can be described that life flows from and within love.
Along the history, for the sake of love, people are willing to ignore their importance; they even sacrificing their life to show the expressions of their love to others. If we love someone or our homeland for example, we will do anything for them. The Return of the Native is one of many novels that tells about it. The sacrifice and love are still found all over the countries in the world, including in our country, and is still relevant to be analyzed at the present life. Therefore, I interested in the novel that reveals these human values that is love and sacrifice.
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